/ December 6, 2020/ Uncategorized

There is an explanatory video on  https://whiterosemaths.com/homelearning/year-5/  to explain the content of the lesson and a corresponding worksheet is included below. There are a lot more than I have included-the links below were completed by children in school this week who really enjoyed it. The accompanying worksheets are below alongside the answers. The difference between the world-avoided emission scenario and the baseline scenario (blue shaded region in Figure Q18-1, upper left panel) provides a reasonable upper limit to the ODP-weighted emissions that have been avoided by the Montreal Protocol since 1987. The most reactive forms are chlorine monoxide (ClO) and bromine monoxide (BrO), and chlorine and bromine atoms (Cl and Br). Should future atmospheric abundances of CO2, CH4 and N2O increase significantly relative to present day values, these increases will affect future levels of stratospheric ozone through combined effects on temperature, winds, and chemistry (see Figure Q20-3). By the end of the century, increased abundances of N2O deplete more ozone than ODSs for the scenario used here (RCP 6.0). These gases participate in three principal reaction cycles that destroy ozone. The high ozone is accompanied by moderate temperatures, high values of HCl and HNO3, In humans, exposure to high levels of ozone can reduce lung capacity; cause chest pains, throat irritation, and coughing; and worsen pre-existing health conditions related to the heart and lungs. I hope that those children who have been attending school as key worker children or came to the transition session have enjoyed the small piece of normality they had. Near Earth’s surface, ozone is produced by chemical reactions involving gases emitted to the atmosphere from both natural sources and human activities. Note that the first and last colors in the color bar represent values outside the indicated range of values. The magnitude of the dual benefit has steadily increased since 1987, as shown by the differences between the The atmospheric abundance of veryshort lived chlorine source gases has increased substantially since the early 1990s and these gases presently contribute about 3.5% (115 ppt) to the total chlorine entering the stratosphere (see Figure Q6-1). This natural seasonal cycle can be observed clearly in the Northern Hemisphere as shown in Figure Q3-1, with increasing values in Arctic total ozone during winter, a clear maximum in spring, and decreasing values from summer to autumn. The magnitude of Antarctic ozone depletion gradually increased beginning in 1980. (The unit “parts per trillion” is defined in the caption of Figure Q6-1.). The largest source related to human activities is agriculture, especially the use of fertilizer. Rainwater and ice efficiently scavenge and remove HCl while the plume is still in the lower atmosphere (troposphere). After 1982, I have also attached a place value chart that may be helpful. starting with ClO, the first reaction is Topic Research-Monday 16th/Tuesday 17th March. Figure Q10-3. completely phased out. UV-A (315 to 400 nm), visible light, and other solar radiation are only weakly absorbed by the ozone layer. are made to monitor total ozone amounts and their The most common type of PSC forms from nitric acid (HNO3) and water condensing on pre-existing liquid sulfuric acid-containing particles. Sunlight in the UV-A (315 to 400 nm wavelengths) and visible (400 to 700 nm wavelengths) parts of the spectrum needed in Cycles 2 and 3 is not sufficient to form ozone because this process requires more energetic solar UV-C solar radiation (see Q1 and Q2). Solid rocket engines, such as those used to propel payloads into orbit, release reactive chlorine gases directly into the troposphere and stratosphere. Since the 1980s, the ozone hole As shown in Figure Q18-1 and described below, the dual benefit of the Montreal Protocol is highlighted by considering a long-term baseline and a world-avoided scenario of ODS emissions that use Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs), Global Warming Potentials (GWPs), equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC), and the radiative forcing of climate. The cooling from ozone depletion is small compared to the warming from the greenhouse gases responsible for observed global climate change. Remember some of the daily activities that children can do include: As well as this, children have packs of work that they may wish to work through as well. There are explanatory videos on this link that children can use to help them. baseline ODS scenario (red) includes actual emissions of all principal gases weighted either by their Ozone Depletion Potentials Consequently, throughout the rest of this century, increases in the abundance of stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles caused by large volcanic eruptions similar to Mount Pinatubo have the potential to reduce global total ozone values for a few years. The surface abundances of individual gases shown here were obtained using a Satellite observations have been used to estimate the long-term enclosed by the 220-DU contour on maps of Ozone This difference arises is in part because of the lower abundance of bromine, which makes quantification of its atmospheric abundance more challenging. It is clear that stratospheric ozone depletion is not a principal cause of present-day global warming. Halogen source gases containing chlorine and bromine are chemically Further evidence linking ODSs and long-term variations in total column ozone is provided by the climate-chemistry model simulations highlighted in Q20. Gases with longer lifetimes have slower conversion rates and survive longer in the atmosphere after emission. If ice particles grow large enough, they can fall several kilometers due to gravity. These research findings are explained in more detail in the box below. The Montreal Protocol and its Amendments and Adjustments have provided vitally important protection to the global ozone layer and climate. The ozone layer is located in the stratosphere and surrounds the entire Earth. Although chlorine is much more abundant in the stratosphere than bromine (about 150-fold) (see Figure Q6-1), bromine atoms are about 60 times more efficient than chlorine atoms in chemically destroying ozone in the lower stratosphere. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. Ozone abundances are shown here as the on latitude and season. important in the stratosphere at tropical and middle latitudes, where solar Figure Q7-3. from observations acquired between These naturally emitted gases are part of the natural balance of ozone production and destruction that predates the large release of manufactured halogenated gases. At the Meeting of the Parties SF6 is technically not a halocarbon because it lacks any carbon atoms, it is an important halogen-containing gas in the atmosphere. UV Index changes. in some cases will exceed the influence of ODSs in most atmospheric The second term represents the absorption of solar UV radiation by ozone: this is a warming term because less ozone results in greater penetration of solar UV radiation into the lower atmosphere (troposphere). Low stratospheric temperatures occur during winter, when solar heating is reduced. Figure Q2-1. The abundance of globally averaged total ozone is now about 2–3% below the amount present during 1964–1980. I will also attach an end of week quiz/task that has different questions all focusing on the topic being taught. The quantities of chlorine emitted globally by rockets is currently small in comparison with halogen emissions from other human activities. There are indications of a decline in surface UV-B at a few surface monitoring stations in the Northern Hemisphere since 1994, a period coincident with the rise in global total ozone (see Figure Q12-1). Figure Q9-2. I would like children to have a go at Pages 2 (square it up) and 3 (Joins). Other chlorine- and bromine-containing gases are released to the atmosphere from human activities. These particles significantly increased the effectiveness of reactive halogen gases in destroying ozone (see Q13) and, thereby, increased global ozone depletion by about 2% for several years following the eruption. Many of the source gases in Figure Q6-1 also contain fluorine in addition to chlorine or bromine. Figure Q4-1. A special situation develops in polar regions in the late winter/early spring season, where large enhancements in the abundance of the most reactive gas, chlorine monoxide, lead to severe ozone depletion. Cycles 2 and 3 account for most of the ozone loss observed in the stratosphere over the Arctic and Antarctic regions in the late winter/early spring season (see Q10 and Q11). In the stratosphere, nitrous oxide is the principal source of reactive nitrogen species that participate in ozone destruction cycles (see Q8). HFC substitute gases. Yes, as a result of the Montreal Protocol, the overall abundance of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) in the atmosphere has been decreasing for the past two decades. Total ozone varies strongly with latitude and longitude as seen within the seasonal plots in Figure Q3-1. Atmospheric lifetimes, global emissions, Ozone Deletion Potentials, and Global Warming Potentials of some halogen Antarctica each year (see heavy red and The largest decreases between 1993 and 2016 are seen in methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and CFC-11. that is currently still larger than the increases in ozone expected from the observed decrease in EESC. was motivated by projections of substantial increases in the Designing your own Rollercoaster involving building and constructing a Rollercoaster then testing it out with a marble. Therefore, the greatest destruction of ozone occurs in the partially to fully sunlit periods after midwinter in the polar stratosphere. In this case, computer simulations indicate that in the year 2020, global total ozone would have been about 17% lower than the 1964–1980 average. This is not the case. Simulations with a model using the projected, individual increases of CO2, CH4, N2O, and ODSs in RCP 6.0 illustrate the impacts of these different GHGs on ozone (see Figure Q20-3). and project future values of ozone. In the continuous darkness of winter in the polar stratosphere, reaction Cycles 2 and 3 cannot occur. The Sun emits three types of ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reach the top of the ozone layer. All emissions are weighted by the GWP of each compound (CO2-equivalent The impacts of future climate change on the ozone layer will vary between the tropics, midlatitudes, and polar regions, and strongly depend on future emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). midlatitudes. total ozone above a location, as well as the Sun’s The Montreal Protocol does not control the production and consumption of very short-lived chlorine source gases, although the atmospheric abundances of some (notably dichloromethane, CH2Cl2) have increased substantially in recent years. Total ozone also varies with season, as shown in Figure Q3-1 using two-week averages of ozone taken from 2009 satellite observations. These lessons are good as they have a teacher video to accompany them. Depletion of the ozone layer increases primarily We are now in to the final week of term in what has been an extraordinary year for the children and adults in school. However, HFCs are greenhouse gases and therefore contribute to climate change. The measurements from space displayed in Figure Q7-2 are representative of how the amounts of chlorine-containing gases change between the surface and the upper stratosphere at middle to high latitudes. Improvements in the energy efficiency of equipment in this sector during the transition to low-GWP alternative refrigerants could potentially double the direct climate benefits of the Amendment. In polar regions, this fraction is much larger because more conversion can occur over the several years it takes stratospheric air to journey from entry points in the tropics to the stratosphere in both polar regions. colors). ozone changes with altitude in the The activities listed below can be completed by children on a daily basis. Cycles 2 and 3 also require sunlight. Figure Q7-1. Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP). The Antarctic ozone hole and Southern Hemisphere climate. is much stronger and colder and, therefore, much more effective in reducing the transport of ozone-rich air from midlatitudes to the pole (compare Figures Q10-3 and Q11-2). and forms an ozone molecule in a binding reaction. Figure Q1-2. In addition, the absorption of UV radiation by ozone is a natural source of heat in the stratosphere, causing temperatures to increase with altitude. Electrical discharges are generally used to produce ozone for industrial processes such as air and water purification and bleaching of textiles and food products. Long-term changes in EESC for five geographic regions as well as the global average are shown in Figure Q20-2 as the differences relative to the amount present in 1960. The bottom panel shows measurements and model In this scenario, climate forcing due to HFCs by the end of the century exceeds that of nitrous oxide and rivals that of methane. Halons were originally developed to extinguish fires and were widely used to protect large computer installations, military hardware, and commercial aircraft engines. Model the latter decades of the prior century (red points). The reductions in ODP-weighted emissions following the peak value in 1987 represent lower limits of the annual emissions avoided by the Montreal Protocol, which are a measure of its increasing success over time in protecting the ozone layer. Halogen source gases with short lifetimes (less than 1 year) undergo significant chemical conversion in the troposphere, producing reactive halogen gases and other compounds. The CO2-equivalent emission unit means release of a GHG would result in the These emissions occur from continued production of HCFCs and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) as well as the release of gases from banks. The abundance of stratospheric H2O is controlled by the temperature of the upper tropical troposphere as well as the decomposition of stratospheric CH4. over the Arctic and about 5 months over So. Long-term total ozone projections. The first instrument for routinely monitoring total ozone was developed by Gordon M.B. With these weightings, emissions are expressed as CFC-11-equivalent or CO2-equivalent mass per year. All of the projections show maximum total ozone depletion around the year 2000, coincident with the highest abundances of A principal method of detecting the presence of volcanic particles in the stratosphere is to measure the transmission of solar radiation through the stratosphere to the ground, which is termed stratospheric aerosol optical depth (SAOD). In addition, net ozone production occurs in the tropics because of high average amounts of solar ultraviolet radiation. BrO has two pathways to form the Cl and Br product gases spring since the early 1980s, was shown to contribute to observed changes in Southern Hemisphere surface climate during response to increasing greenhouse gases. Protocol, EESC will continue to decline over the coming decades and will return to pre-1980 levels around midcentury (see It is a success We use Hemisphere are greater than those in the Northern UV protection by the ozone layer. Mount Erebus and Deception Island are the only two currently active volcanoes in Antarctica. Balloon-borne instruments (see Q4) demonstrate that this depletion occurs within the ozone layer, the altitude region that normally contains the highest abundances of ozone. variations in meteorological conditions, volcanic eruptions, changes contribution to the radiative forcing (RF) of climate since the start of the Industrial Era (see Figure Q17-1). The gases with smaller values of ODP generally have shorter atmospheric lifetimes or contain fewer chlorine and bromine atoms. chlorine (EESC) for the midlatitude, Willkommen im Aboshop Ihrer TA Ob gedruckt, digital oder als clevere Kombi - wählen Sie Ihr Lesevergnügen Air pollution from a variety of human activities has led to increases in global tropospheric ozone (see Q2), causing a positive radiative forcing (warming) estimated to be +0.4 W/m2 over the 1750-2011 time period, with a range of uncertainty spanning +0.2 to +0.6 W/m2 (see Figure Q17-1). They can present their findings in any form they like, including posters or a PowerPoint. These systematic differences in stratospheric air are a consequence of large-scale atmospheric transport: air enters the stratosphere in the tropics, moves poleward in both hemispheres, and then descends and ultimately returns to the troposphere in the middle to high latitudes. 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